There’s been a lot of discussion on legal blogs and news sites over the last week or so about the correct past-tense form of plead
, probably spurred by this article on LTN
. Does proper style mandate pleaded
, and is it ever acceptable to use pled
? There are good arguments on both sides, to be sure, but there’s plenty of that on the internet as it is, and we won’t expound on that here.
Having access to good search tools and a massive database, though, we can put all the bickering and pedantry aside and get a pretty good picture of how these contentious verb forms are actually used in the real world. And what the numbers tell us is pretty interesting.
It turns out pleaded
is the clear favorite, mentioned in more than twice as many cases as pled
. Different jurisdictions, though, vary fairly widely in their usages of the two words. Of the cases that include either of the words in question, the Federal Seventh Circuit uses pled
in only 26 percent, whereas the Fourth Circuit uses it in 59 percent of its cases. The US Supreme Court is by far the most consistent, using pleaded
almost 100 times more often than pled
Just like the federal courts, the states seem to have their own conventions on word choice. Idaho, the most pled
-friendly state, uses the word more than twice as often as pleaded
, but Massachusetts prefers pleaded
by an eighteen-to-one margin.
The two things that seem to make the biggest difference overall are geography and time. A quick check with Fastcase’s interactive timeline shows that there has been a steady trend toward pled
in the last 25 years or so, while pleaded
has stayed relatively steady.
The three states with the greatest proportion of pled
cases (Idaho, Montana, and Arizona) are, interestingly enough, all western states. The three states most adherent to the style manuals prescribing pleaded
(Maine, Connecticut, and Massachusetts) are all located in New England.
A poll posted on the ABA Journal
last week shows that 69 percent of respondents preferred pled
, but so far it looks like legal opinions haven’t caught up to public opinion.